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Introduction to CDM Regulations

Dr. Khalid Bhutto Articles

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What are the "CDM Regulations 2015"?

History and background of CDM Regulations

Key Principle of CDM Regulations

Main Requirements of CDM Regulations

Structure of CDM Regulations

Duty Holders under CDM Regulations

Main Milestone Documents of CDM Regulations

General Duties in CDM Regulations

CDM 2015 Flowdiagram

CDM 2015 Application ‐ By Dutyholder Chart

CDM 2015 Application ‐ By Documents Chart



























What are the "CDM Regulations 2015"?

The CDM Regulations, CDM Regulations 2015, CDM 2015, CDM Regs or CDM are short form abbreviations of Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2015, UK Legislation Statutory Reference (2015/51).

The CDM Regulations are regarded as a first piece of legislation directly targeted at construction industry.

A construction site by its very nature is hazardous and construction industry is still one of most hazardous sectors. The CDM Regulations appear to have played a vital role in raising the awareness about health and safety on construction projects and arguably helped reducing the number of injuries and fatalities on construction sites, although still there is a long way to go.

The main aim of the CDM Regulations is to ensure that health and safety is embedded as part of the construction process and is planned and managed throughout all stages of a construction project i.e. from conceptual design to site works completion and use of the completed building or structure.

In fact, the CDM Regulation when truly applied encourage consideration of health and safety aspects during the whole life cycle of a building or structure including end of its useful life and ultimate demolition at the end of its life which could be 50 to 70 years or longer down the line.

The CDM Regulations place legally binding duties on key members of a construction project team i.e., Client, Designers, Principal Designer, Principal Contractor and Contractors.

The roles of Principal Designer and Principal Contractor are specific to and created for the sole purposes of the CDM Regulations.

The CDM Regulations regard the following five key elements to achieve a safe construction project.

  1. Risks identified and managed in a systematic order.
  2. Competent professionals appointed in a timely manner.
  3. Those involved in the project having access to information about the project and trained and supervised to appropriate level.
  4. Those involved in the project co‐operating and communicating with each other and co‐ordinating their activities.
  5. Those working on site made proactively involved to achieve a safe construction site.

The CDM Regulations apply to all construction projects in the UK, domestic or non-domestic, regardless of their size or duration on site.


CDM Flow Diagram

History and background of CDM Regulations?

The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations (CDM Regulations) first came into force in the UK on 31 March 1995 as CDM Regulations 1994.

The CDM Regulations 1994 were introduced by the UK government as a direct response to EU Directive 92/57/EEC (Temporary or Mobile Construction Sites Directive (TMCSD). Temporary or Mobile Construction Sites Directive applies to whole European Union hence more or less a similar version of the Regulations is implemented in each of the European Union member country.

The CDM Regulations 1994 introduced two new legal roles of Planning Supervisor and Principal Contractor and first time in history of construction industry placed specific legally binding duties on Client and Designers of a construction project.

The CDM Regulations were revised in 2007 and a new version CDM Regulations 2007 came into force in April 2007. In 2007 version of the Regulations, the Planning Supervisor role was replaced with a CDM Co-ordinator and Construction (Health and Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996 were merged with the CDM Regulations among the other changes. In addition, the roles and responsibilities of explained.html#cdm-designer">Designers, Principal Contractor and Contractors were made stringent to improve the implementation of CDM Regulations.

In the latest 2015 version of the CDM Regulations (which came into force in April 2015) the role of CDM Co-ordinator has been replaced with a Principal Designer. The Principal Contractor role title has stayed the same since CDM Regulations 1994.



Key Principle of CDM Regulations?

As the cliche goes, it is all in the name.

The name Construction (Design and Management) Regulations is a combination of two terms; Construction Design and Construction Management. The key principle of the Regulations is based on the spilt a construction project into two phases. Construction Design or Pre-construction Phase and Construction Management or simply Construction Phase.

The CDM Regulations are based on the premise that for each of the above two phases of a construction project there should be someone responsible for health and safety, hence two new legal roles were introduced in the first version of CDM Regulations 1994. First role was of Planning Supervisor ‐ responsible for co‐ordination of health and safety in Pre-construction Phase and the second role of a Principal Contractor ‐ responsible for health and safety in the Construction Phase.

In 2007 revision of the CDM Regulations, the Planning Supervisor role was replaced with a CDM Co‐ordinator and in the latest 2015 version of the CDM Regulations the role of CDM Co-ordinator has been replaced with a Principal Designer. The Principal Contractor role and title has stayed the same since CDM Regulations 1994. Even though the title for person or an organisation responsible for health and safety in Pre-construction Phase has changed from a Planning Supervisor, then CDM Co‐ordinator and now to a Principal Designer the essence of their duties has remained unchanged.


CDM Duty Holders

Main Requirements of CDM Regulations?

As mentioned above, the CDM Regulations place specific legally binding duties on Client, Designers, Principal Designer, Principal Contractor and Contractors on a construction project. However, the main requirements of CDM Regulations 2015 can be presentated as follows:

  1. On any construction project which involves more than one contractor, a Principal Designer and a Principal Contractor are needed to be appointed.
  2. Pre-construction Information (PCI) must be provided by the Client. On projects where there is more than one contractor, the Principal Designer must collect this PCI information.
  3. On each and every construction project, regardless of nature, size or duration, a Construction Phase Plan (CPP) must be prepared.
  4. Health and Safety Executive (HSE) must be informed by sending F10 notification for those construction projects which meet the threshold requirements.
  5. A Health and Safety File required to be prepared on completion of works on a construction site where more than one contractor are involved.

Structure of CDM Regulations?

The current CDM Regulations 2015 contain the following structure and sections.





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